嫁接金叶银杏种子生活力比较分析毕业论文_林学毕业论文

嫁接金叶银杏种子生活力比较分析毕业论文

2021-04-19更新

摘 要

银杏是一种重要的孑遗植物,是我国重要的经济树种之一,具有极高的观赏、经济、生态和科研价值。金叶银杏是重要的银杏观赏品种之一。本试验以两种不同优株的金叶银杏种子作为研究对象,通过分别对其萌发过程中蛋白质总量、游离氨基酸含量的变化规律以及蛋白酶活性和硝酸还原酶活性的变化情况进行比较和分析,进而判断两种金叶银杏种子的生活力差异。试验结果表明:

3号种子胚乳重、胚长度和胚芽长度均大于15号种子,且生长状态更优。

3号种子发芽率比15号种子高18%。

种子内蛋白质总量变化趋势均为先降低后升高,但15号种子波动更大。

种子内游离氨基酸含量变化趋势均为先降低后增高再降低,但15号种子变化幅度更大,出现剧增的情况。

种子蛋白质酶活性变化趋势不同,3号种子趋势为先升后降,15号种子变化趋势为先降后升。

种子内硝酸还原酶活性变化趋势不同,3号种子为先升后降,15号种子为先降后升。

3号种子的硝酸还原酶活性与蛋白酶活性之间呈明显的正相关关系15号种子两种酶活性之间呈负相关。

3号种子内蛋白酶活性和总蛋白质含量间有显著的相关性且游离氨基酸含量与硝酸还原酶间也有明显的相关性,而15号各项指标间无显著相关性。

关键词:金叶银杏;种子生活力;蛋白质;酶活性

Comparative Analysis of Seed Viability of Grafted Ginkgo biloba

ABSTRACT

Ginkgo biloba is an important relict plant and one of the important economic tree species in China. It has high ornamental, economic, ecological and scientific research value. Ginkgo biloba is one of the important ornamental varieties of Ginkgo biloba. In this experiment, the seed of Ginkgo biloba with two different superior plants was taken as the research object, and the total protein content during germination was studied. The changes of free amino acid content and protease activity and nitrate reductase activity were compared and analyzed, and then the difference of vitality between the two kinds of Ginkgo biloba seeds was judged. The results show that:

The endosperm weight, embryo length and germ length of No. 3 seed were larger than those of No. 15 seed, and the growth state was better.

The germination rate of No. 3 seed was 18% higher than that of No. 15 seed.

The change trend of total protein in seeds decreased at first and then increased, but the fluctuation of No. 15 seeds was greater.

The content of free amino acids in seeds decreased at first and then increased and then decreased, but the change range of No. 15 seeds was larger, and there was a sharp increase in the content of free amino acids in seeds.

The change trend of protein enzyme activity in seeds was different. The trend of seed No. 3 increased at first and then decreased, while that of seed No. 15 decreased at first and then increased.

The change trend of nitrate reductase activity in seeds was different. No. 3 seeds increased first and then decreased, and No. 15 seeds decreased first and then increased.

There was a significant positive correlation between nitrate reductase activity and protease activity of No. 3 seeds. There was a negative correlation between the two enzyme activities of No. 15 seeds.

There was a significant correlation between protease activity and total protein content in No. 3 seeds, and there was also a significant correlation between free amino acid content and nitrate reductase, but there was no significant correlation between the indexes of No. 15.

Key words: Ginkgo biloba; Seed viability; Proteins; Enzyme activities

目 录

1 绪论 1

1.1研究的目的和意义 1

1.2国内外研究概况 1

1.2.1银杏的应用与栽培 1

1.2.2金叶银杏叶色突变机理的研究与探讨 2

1.3种子生活力概述与测定方法 3

2 试验材料及方法 4

2.1试验地概况 4

2.2试验材料 4

2.2.1形态观察 4

2.2.2种子蛋白质含量测定 4

2.2.3游离氨基酸含量测定 5

2.2.4酶活性的测定 5

3 结果与分析 7

3.1金叶银杏种子的发芽观察 7

3.2金叶银杏种子生活力 7

3.3种子萌发过程中蛋白质和氨基酸含量变化 8

3.3.1可溶性蛋白质含量变化 8

3.3.2游离氨基酸含量变化 2

3.4种子萌发过程中酶活性变化 3

3.4.1蛋白酶活性变化 3

3.4.2硝酸还原酶活性变化 4

3.4.3蛋白酶与硝酸还原酶活性变化的回归分析 5

3.5各指标之间的相关性分析 5

4 结论 6

致 谢 7

参考文献 8

1 绪论

1.1研究的目的和意义

银杏(Ginkgo biloba L.)又名白果、公孙树,在中国特有的现存裸子植物中是最古老的一种珍贵的孑遗植物,被人们称为植物中的活化石。银杏的树体高大,树龄长寿,叶形美观,其叶片和种子均有极高的食药用价值,是一种具有较高的经济、生态、观赏以及科研价值的多用途特种经济树种,在生物学、生态学、植物学、园艺学等诸多方向的研究中都能作为理想材料。在对银杏的选育和应用的研究中,通过多年进行的天然杂交和人工选择,银杏的种子和叶片已经都具备了比较多的明显变异,优株种质资源丰富,1966年,Harrison根据对银杏的理解和研究,按照《国际栽培植物命名法规》将前人已命名的5 个变种(var.)变成优株(cv.),其中就包括“金叶银杏”[1]

而尽管我国对银杏的研究开展比较早,而且在对仁用银杏种质资源的调查选优的工作中已经取得了一定的进展,银杏种子早已成为我国著名干果。但是对现有的叶用银杏资源价值的相关研究则较少,叶用新优株的评价及选育的工作仅具备了初步的体系和框架[2]。金叶银杏(G. b. var. aurea Beiss. L.)是银杏的一个重要变种,其突出特点是叶春夏皆呈现出明显的鲜黄色[3]。金叶银杏因其叶色优美和观赏期长等优势,已经开始在景观园林中推广种植[4]。而金叶银杏作为一个特点特殊且突出的叶用银杏种质资源,因此研究其叶色的黄化机理有着极为重要的意义。李卫星等人的研究表明,银杏群体间遗传一致度较高,群体间基因交流广泛,且雄株群体内遗传变异比群体间要高[5]。但就目前的研究来看,对金叶银杏叶片呈现出金黄色的变色机理的研究并不是很清楚,这在很大程度上限制了对金叶银杏的进一步的理论研究和实际的应用推广。因此本实验通过对嫁接金叶银杏种子生活力的比较分析,来分析两种金叶银杏的品种差异。

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