银杏等经济林木果量控制技术探索毕业论文_林学毕业论文

银杏等经济林木果量控制技术探索毕业论文

2021-04-20更新

摘 要

花果调控是经济林生产的一项重要措施。通过调控花果量,一则可以达到优质丰产稳产的目的;二则可以保护树势,保证树体健壮,延长其经济寿命;三则减少落花落果量,减少污染。经济林木开花结果同时受遗传和环境因素的控制,其花果调控手段主要通过物理、生物、化学三类方法进行,在生产实践中得到越来越广泛的应用。

银杏由于其优良的经济、生态、社会效益,近几十年得到快速发展,广泛用于果用林、叶用林和海量的城乡绿化工程。现在很多已进入盛果期,近年发现许多银杏雌树由于结实量过大,树体衰弱;许多大树、古树因为生殖拖累而亡。如何控制其适度的结果总量,保持生殖生长和营养生长的相对动态平衡已经成为目前急需解决的科学问题和生产难题。

本试验选择在在我国银杏重点核心产区—-江苏邳州进行。根据已有研究成果,选用药剂S、药剂X、药剂N、药剂C、药剂B、药剂Y等6种植物生长调节剂或植物激素进行喷药控果试验,观察不同药剂不同浓度对银杏种实凋落效应,树体的营养生长变化情况。在试验林中随机选择试验株,采用单因素方差分析,每种药剂设置3个浓度,7个重复,每个重复要求长柄数量不低于50枚,于2018年4月9日,银杏种实未出现授粉性状前的胚卵期进行第一次施药处理,30d后进行第一次控果调查。初步结论如下:

药剂S、药剂X、药剂N、药剂C、药剂B、药剂Y等6种药剂均能不同程度促进银杏落果。其中,药剂S3个浓度落果率在25.37-29.62%之间,与对照比增加落果量近一倍,统计分析达到显著水平,P=0.03;其他五种药剂增加落果量0.21-10.22%,方差检验没有达到显著水平。

届时,银杏新梢生长量不大,6种药剂对银杏营养生长的影响暂时采用SPAD叶绿素仪,测定样株幼叶叶绿素来表征。发现除药剂N的浓度2和浓度3影响叶绿素含量达到显著水平外,其余药剂影响均不显著。

由于银杏生殖生长发育的年节律关系,本试验在银杏种实授粉后进行的第二次施药控果试验数据未能进入本论文,是个缺憾,但会继续后续试验。各种药剂及其浓度对银杏最终的控果效应,对营养生长的影响,及其多种生理响待持续测定、分析和评价。

关键词:银杏;果量控制;植物生长调节剂;生殖生长;营养生长

A Medicine Test of thinning Ginkgo fruit

ABSTRACT

Fruit and flower regulation is an important measure of economic forest production. By regulating the amount of fruit and fruit, one can achieve the aim of high yield and stable yield. Secondly, the tree potential can be protected and its economic life is prolonged. Third, reduce the amount of fruit drop, reduce pollution. Economic trees blossom controlled by genetic and environmental factors at the same time, its flowers and control mainly through the physical, biological, chemical, three kinds of methods, get more and more widely applied in production practice.

Ginkgo has been developed rapidly in recent decades due to its excellent economic, ecological and social benefits, and it is widely used in forest, leaf forest and massive urban and rural afforestation projects. Now many of them have entered the fruit stage. In recent years, many Ginkgo female trees have been found to be too strong and the tree is weak. Many large trees and ancient trees have died because of their reproductive burden. How to control the total amount of the results and maintain the relative dynamic balance of reproductive growth and vegetative growth has become a scientific problem and production problem which is urgently needed to be solved.

This experiment was conducted in Pizhou, Jiangsu province. According to the existing research results, use drug S, X, Y, N, C, B and agents, such as 6 kinds of plant growth regulator or plant hormones spraying fruit control experiment, observe different drug concentrations of ginkgo real litter effect, the vegetative growth of trees. In experiment randomly selected in the forest plant, using the single factor analysis of variance, each agent set up three concentrations, seven repeat, every repeat request long handle amount not less than 50. On April 9, 2018, kinds of Ginkgo biloba did not appear before pollination traits administer treatment for the first time, after 30 d control fruit survey for the first time. The preliminary conclusions are as follows:

Agent S, agent X, agent N, agent C, agent B, agent Y and six other agents can promote Ginkgo fruit. Among them, the concentration of the drug S3 was between 25.37-29.62%, and the ratio of the fruit was nearly doubled, and the statistical analysis reached a significant level, P=0.03. The other five agents increased the fruit drop by 0.21-10.22%, and the variance test did not reach the significant level.

At that time, the growth of Ginkgo biloba was not large, and the effect of 6 kinds of agents on the growth of Gingko biloba was temporarily adopted by SPAD chlorophyll, and the chlorophyll in the samples was determined. It was found that concentration 2 and 3 of the agent N had a significant effect on chlorophyll content, and the influence of other agents was not significant.

Due to reproductive growth rhythm of Ginkgo biloba, this experiment in Ginkgo biloba solid second delivery mechanism for controlling fruit after pollination experiment data failed to reach, this paper is a drawback, but will continue to follow-up test. The effects of various agents and their concentration on the final fruit control effect of Ginkgo, and their effects on vegetative growth, and their various physiological effects were measured, analyzed and evaluated.

Key words:Ginkgo biloba; Fruit Quantity Control; Plant Growth Regulator; Reproductive growth; Vegetative growth

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