长叶苦竹对盐碱胁迫的生理响应毕业论文_林学毕业论文

长叶苦竹对盐碱胁迫的生理响应毕业论文

2021-04-23更新

摘 要

本文通过对长叶苦竹在不同浓度盐碱胁迫下生理生化反应,POD、SOD含量,脯氨酸含量,叶绿素含量,相对电导率等抗性指标的测定来评价长叶苦竹的耐盐碱性,主要研究结果如下:

(1)在处理前期,长叶苦竹都很好的适应了盐碱胁迫,但随着处理时间的增长,盐碱胁迫对SOD活性的损伤很大。POD酶活性随盐处理浓度及处理时间的变化与SOD酶活性的变化趋势基本一致。长叶苦竹的保护酶系统在抗盐碱的过程中,保护酶SOD、POD起到协同保护以适应盐碱胁迫的作用。

(2)通过对不同浓度下长叶苦竹的MDA含量变化的测定,初步怀疑高盐碱胁迫下植物经过长期处理已经死亡,而在低盐碱胁迫下长叶苦竹仍然在适应环境的变化。

(3)长叶苦竹在不同浓度盐碱胁迫下可溶性糖含量的变化可以看出长叶苦竹对中低盐碱胁迫适应性较高盐碱强。

(4)长叶苦竹通过加快合成脯氨酸的速度来提高自身渗透调节功能,但是随着处理时间的增长,长叶苦竹已经不能适应盐胁迫,从而导致生长受到抑制,而在高盐胁迫下,长叶苦竹的调节能力明显受到抑制,调节速度缓慢,并且脯氨酸的合成量开始降低。

(5)叶绿素的减少主要是由于叶绿素酶对叶绿素b的降解所致,对叶绿素a的影响较小,所以,盐碱胁迫下长叶苦竹的叶绿素含量下降,叶绿素a/b的比值上升。

(6)长叶苦竹在前30天期间对于外界的盐碱胁迫适应力较好,在第30天至第60天内,长叶苦竹的电导率开始快速升高,说明细胞膜的通透性开始变大,引起了细胞膜外各种离子的进出,长叶苦竹的耐受性也会随之降低。

关键词:长叶苦竹;盐碱胁迫;生理生化特性;

Studies on physiological-biochemical index of Pleioblastus china f.hisauchiiL under saline alkali stress ABSTRACT

The physiological-biochemical index of POD, SOD, proline, chlorophyll content and relative conductivity were measured to evaluate the salt resistance ability of Pleioblastus china f.hisauchiiL. The main research result is as follows:

(1)In the early treatment, Pleioblastus china f.hisauchii was well adapted to the saline alkali stress, but with the growth of the treatment time, saline alkali stress on the SOD activity of the damage is very large, The change of POD enzyme activity with the concentration of salt treatment and treatment time was basically consistent with the change of SOD activity. Pleioblastus china f.hisauchii pleiblastus protective enzyme system in the process of salt resistant, protective enzyme SOD, POD plays a synergistic protective effect to adapt to saline alkali stress.

(2)Through the determination of the content of MDA in different concentrations of Pleioblastus china f.hisauchii.The plants were initially suspected to have died after long-term treatment under high saline alkali stress, while Pleioblastus china f.hisauchii was still adapting to the changes of the environment under the condition of low salt and alkali stress.

(3)Pleioblastus china f.hisauchii in different concentrations of salt and alkali stress, from its soluble sugar content of the changes can be seen in the Pleioblastus china f.hisauchii has a better adaptability in low salinity stress than high salt.

(4)Pleioblastus china f.hisauchiiL by speeding up the rate of proline synthesis to improve its osmotic adjustment function, but along with the increase of processing time, Pleioblastus china f.hisauchiiL already can not adapt to salt stress, resulting in growth was inhibited, and under high salt stress, it adjustment ability obviously inhibited, adjust the speed slow and proline synthesis began to decrease.

(5)The decrease of chlorophyll was mainly due to the degradation of chlorophyll b, which had less effect on the chlorophyll a, as a result,the chlorophyll content of Pleioblastus china f.hisauchii was decreased under salt and alkali stress,the ratio of chlorophyll a/b rise.

(6)Pleioblastus china f.hisauchii during the first 30 days for external saline alkali stress flexibility is good, within the 30 days to the 60 day, Pleioblastus china .

f.hisauchiiL conductivity began to increased rapidly, indicating cell membrane permeability began to change, causing the cell membrane ion import and, its tolerance will decrease.

Key words: Pleioblastus china f.hisauchii; saline-alkaline stress;

physiological-biochemical characteristic;

目 录

1 引言 1

1.1 研究目的与意义 1

1.2 国内外研究现状 1

1.2.1 盐碱对植物的危害 1

1.2.2 部分植物的盐碱胁迫研究进展 2

2 材料与方法 3

2.1 试验材料 3

2.2 试验设计 3

2.2.1 盐碱梯度设计 3

2.2.2 试验材料处理 3

2.3 研究方法 4

2.3.1 酶液的制取 4

2.3.2 酶活性的测定 4

2.3.2.1 SOD活性的测定 4

2.3.2.2 POD活性的测定 4

2.3.2.3 MDA活性的测定 4

2.3.3 可溶性糖的测定 5

2.3.4 脯氨酸的测定 5

2.3.5 叶绿素含量的测定 5

2.3.6 电导率的测定 5

3 结果与分析 7

3.1 不同盐碱胁迫对长叶苦竹SOD活性的影响 7

3.2 不同盐碱胁迫对长叶苦竹POD活性的影响 9

3.3 不同盐碱胁迫对长叶苦竹MDA含量的影响 11

3.4 不同盐碱胁迫对长叶苦竹可溶性糖含量的影响 12

3.5 不同盐碱胁迫对长叶苦竹脯氨酸含量的影响 14

3.6 不同盐碱浓度对长叶苦竹叶绿素含量的影响 16

3.7 不同盐碱浓度对长叶苦竹电导率的影响 22

结 论 24

致 谢 26

参考文献 27

1 引言

1.1 研究目的与意义

土壤盐渍化是指土壤底层或地下水的盐分随毛管水上升到地表,水分蒸发后,使盐分积累在表层土壤中的过程。中国盐碱土的分布范围非常广泛,且面积大,种类多,总面积约1亿hm2。主要发生在干旱、半干旱和半湿润地区。土壤盐碱化对于土壤的危害极大。盐碱化会危害作物生长、阻碍农业生产的发展,土壤溶液直接毒害作物细胞作物生长不良造成缺苗、减产、死亡等[1]。因此,土壤盐碱化已经成为当今世界最严重、最受关注的环境问题之一。我国有9900多万公顷盐碱地,由于找不到合适的树种,盐碱地作为一种很宝贵的土地资源被浪费了。在盐碱地上种植适应盐碱的树木,既可以改良土壤,又可以增加农民的收入。几种常见的适宜在盐碱地生长额树木有沙枣、白榆、白柳、白蜡等树种。

长叶苦竹,属大明竹属,秆壁薄,原产于日本,枝叶优美,可作为观赏植物,在园林绿化中有着广泛的使用。目前关于长叶苦竹的研究较少。本课题通过生理生化实验来研究长叶苦竹在不同浓度盐碱胁迫下的生理相应,以此来测定长叶苦竹是否适宜作为生长在盐碱地以及改善盐碱地的绿化植物。

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