嫁接银杏叶用良种选育研究毕业论文_林学毕业论文

嫁接银杏叶用良种选育研究毕业论文

2021-04-20更新

摘 要

银杏树种是我国仅存的单属树种,为我国特有的经济树种它,是世界上最古老的裸子植物,其历史的源头可以追溯到侏罗纪时期,具有重要的科学价值,属国家二级保护的稀有植物。其银杏的各个部位均有较高的经济价值和使用价值,尤其是银杏叶的提取物,是众多产品的重要原料。同时银杏也具有极佳的观赏价值。本试验以金昌地区银杏三年生实生苗为砧木,接穗为生长优良的6个银杏品系,采用枝接的嫁接方法。通过测定生长季不同银杏品系的光合指标、生理生化指标、黄酮含量等生理指标,选育适生且叶用价值较高的品系,为银杏推广利用选择提供依据。试验结果表明:

(1)6个品系含水率从高到低排列为:16#>佛指类=13#>大花穗>27#>叶丰,其中叶丰品系偏低,其他5个品系相差不大;

(2)6个品系的比叶面积从大到小依次为:27#>叶丰>16#>佛指类>大花穗>13#,其中27#和叶丰比叶面积相差不是很大,几乎相同;

(3)各品系可溶性糖含量约在25%左右,含量从高到低排列:大花穗>叶丰>16#>13#>佛指类>27#,大花穗品系和其他5个品系差异极显著,生长状态最好;

(4)6个品系测得可溶性蛋白质含量约为1.5mg·g-1左右,含量由高到低排列为:叶丰>佛指类>27#>13#>大花穗>16#;

(5)6个品系的叶绿素含量从高到低排列:16#>大花穗>叶丰>13#>27#>佛指类,其中大花穗和16#的叶绿素含量相差不大;

(6)根据测定所得黄酮含量将6个品系分为两类:叶丰、16#、大花穗这一类别黄酮含量较低;13#、27#、佛指这一类别黄酮含量相对而言较高;

(7)根据相关性分析得知,叶绿素和可溶性糖之间呈显著负相关;而可溶性蛋白和黄酮含量之间呈显著正相关;黄酮含量叶绿素之间呈显著负相关;

关键词:银杏;嫁接;生理指标;黄酮含量

Studies on the Growth and Physiological Characteristics of Ginkgo biloba L.

ABSTRACT

Ginkgo biloba is the only single genus tree species in China. It is a unique economic tree species in China. It is the oldest gymnosperm in the world. Its historical origin can be traced back to the Jurassic Period. It has important scientific value and is a rare plant under the second-class protection of the country. Each part of Ginkgo biloba has high economic value and use value, especially the extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves, which is an important raw material for many products. Ginkgo biloba also has excellent ornamental value. In this experiment, three-year-old seedlings of Ginkgo biloba in Jinchang area were used as rootstocks and Scions as 6 strains of Ginkgo biloba with good growth. Grafting method was adopted. By measuring the photosynthetic index, physiological and biochemical index and flavonoid content of Different Ginkgo strains in growing season, suitable strains with higher leaf value were selected to provide basis for ginkgo leaf industry in China. The test results show that:

(1) The water content of six strains ranged from high to low: 16 gt; Buddha finger = 13 gt; big spike gt; 27 gt; Yefeng, among which Yefeng strain was low, while the other five strains had little difference.

(2) The specific leaf area of six strains was 27 gt; Yefeng gt; 16 gt; Buddha finger class gt; Big spike gt; 13, and the difference between 27 # and Yefeng was not very big, almost the same.

(3) The soluble sugar content of each strain was about 25%. The content ranged from high to low: big panicle gt; Yefeng gt; 16 # gt; 13 # gt; Buddha finger gt; 27 #. The difference between big panicle strain and other five strains was very significant, and the growth condition was the best.

(4) The soluble protein content of 6 strains was about 1.5 mg. G-1. The content ranged from high to low as follows: Yefeng gt; Buddha finger gt; 27 gt; 13 gt; Big spike gt; 16.

(5) The order of net photosynthetic rate from high to low was 27 gt; 16 gt; 13 gt; big spike gt; Buddha finger gt; Yefeng, of which 27 # and 16 # had the best photosynthetic ability, while other strains were weaker.

(6) The chlorophyll content of six strains ranged from high to low: 16 gt; big flower panicle gt; Yefeng gt; 13 gt; 27 gt; Buddha finger. The chlorophyll content of big flower panicle and 16 # were similar.

(7) According to the content of flavonoids, six strains were classified into two categories: Yefeng, 16 # and Big Flower Panicle. The content of flavonoids in 13 #, 27 # and Buddha finger was relatively high.

(8) According to the correlation analysis, the content of flavonoids was negatively correlated with the net photosynthetic rate, while the net photosynthetic rate was negatively correlated with the specific leaf area.

Key words: Ginkgo biloba; Grafting; Physiological indicators; Flavonoid c

目 录

目 录 1

1文献综述 1

1.1银杏概述 1

1.2银杏苗木的发展和现状 2

1.3叶用银杏培育技术 3

2材料与方法 4

2.1 试验地及试验材料 4

2.1.1 试验地概况 4

2.1.2 试验材料 4

2.2 测定指标与方法 4

2.2.1 叶片含水率及比叶面积 5

2.2.2 叶片生理生化指标 5

2.2.3 次生代谢产物黄酮(HPLC)含量的测定方法 6

3 结果与分析 7

3.1 银杏叶片含水量及比叶面积 7

3.2 叶片内含物质含量 7

3.2.1可溶性糖含量 8

3.2.2可溶性蛋白质含量 8

3.2.3叶片叶绿素含量 9

3. 3 各品系黄酮含量测定分析 10

3. 4 各指标间相关性分析 10

4 结论与讨论 11

致 谢 12

参考文献 13

1文献综述

1.1银杏概述

银杏是我国仅存的单属树种,银杏科落叶大型乔木,同时它是世界上最古老的裸子植物,其历史的源头可以追溯到侏罗纪时期,号称植物界中的“活化石”[1]。银杏在以前是我国特有的树种,如今也是我国重要的经济树种之一,在经济树种中占有重要的地位、具有重要的科学价值,属国家二级保护的稀有植物[2]

我国具有丰富的银杏资源,国内的银杏资源占了全世界的70 %以上[3]。银杏具有较高的经济价值,世界上已有几十个国家栽种培育利用银杏,把银杏作为一种经济林树种而大力发展[4]。现如今银杏在我国分布特别广,在山东、河南、江苏等均有大量分布[5]。同时也因为这些地域分散,自然条件差异大,种质资源异常丰富,导致银杏资源开发利用的研究还有待进一步深入和扩展。

银杏用途广泛,银杏的花、果、枝、叶等都可以被利用[6]。银杏叶中的提取物是各种生活日用品的重要原料,因此,对银杏叶的开发和利用具有重大的意义。银杏一般采用的繁殖方式有播种繁殖和无性繁殖。嫁接是无性繁殖的一种重要方式,是将接穗通过某种方法嫁接到砧木上,通过砧木和接穗的亲和力来形成愈伤组织从而达到成活,产生嫁接苗木。因嫁接能保持和发展优良种性,实现早期丰产,促使树木矮化,能充分利用野生树种资源,能对现有的树种改良换优、提高树种的适应性,因此无性繁殖是商业种植极有效的方法之一。人们利用接穗、环境条件对砧木的影响,来选育合适的繁殖材料。前人研究认为,砧木是原始繁殖材料极其重要的一部分,砧木会直接影响嫁接成活、接穗后期的生长发育营养吸收、光合、抗性,与此同时,对苗木产量和品质等也会产生一定的影响。

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