唐山地区地区叶用银杏适应性选育研究毕业论文_林学毕业论文

唐山地区地区叶用银杏适应性选育研究毕业论文

2021-04-20更新

摘 要

银杏具有极高的经济价值。银杏果含有多种营养元素,具有食疗作用和医用效果,主干可以用作砧木和木材,其叶在食品工业中可作为功能性食品添加剂;也可直接加工成功能食品,也可用作饲料添加剂。提取物可以用以治疗心脑血管疾病,具有不菲的经济效益。通过对6个银杏无性品系(洞庭皇、洞庭佛手、铁马2号、叶丰、大花穗、大佛指)进行随机区组嫁接试验,考察嫁接株的生长指标(接穗叶芽的分叶数,一年生枝条的长度、粗度)、嫁接株叶片生理指标(叶绿素含量、比叶面积),选择出最适合唐山叶用无性系品种,为我国北方银杏叶用产业提供帮助。6个代号品系试验结果经方差分析表明:

(1)6种嫁接株叶片比叶面积从大到小依次为:13#、叶丰、大花穗、16#、27#、大佛指,其中13#和大佛指之间差异极显著;

(2)6种嫁接株叶片可溶性糖含量从高到低依次为:16#、13#、大花穗、27#、叶丰、大佛指,16#与大佛指和叶丰之间差异极显著;

(3)6种嫁接株叶片可溶性蛋白质含量从高到低依次为:大佛指、大花穗、叶丰、13#、27#、16#,大佛指和大花穗与13#、27#、16#之间差异极显著;

(4)6种嫁接株叶片叶绿素含量从高到低依次为:大花穗、16#、大佛指、27#、13#、叶丰,大花穗与叶丰之间差异极显著;

(5)6种嫁接株叶片黄酮含量由高到低依次为:叶丰、13#、16#、大花穗、27#、大佛指,大花穗与27#之间差异显著,其他四个无性系品种之间差异极显著;

(6)6种嫁接株按生长指标中叶片数从大到小依次为:大佛指、27#、叶丰、大花穗、16#、13#;

关键词:银杏;随机区组设计;生长指标;生理指标;黄酮;

Study on Clone Breeding of Ginkgo biloba L.for Leaf Use in Tangshan Area.

ABSTRACT

Ginkgo has very high economic value. Ginkgo fruit contains a variety of nutrients, which have dietary and medical effects. Its trunk can be used as rootstock and wood. Its leaves can be used as functional food additives in food industry. It can also be directly processed as potential food or as feed additives. The extract can be used to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and has considerable economic benefits. Six Ginkgo clones (Dong ting Huang, Dong ting Buddhist Hand, Tiema 2, Yefeng, Big Flower Spike and Big Buddha Finger) were randomly block grafted. The growth indexes of the grafted plants (the number of leaves of scion buds, the length and thickness of annual branches) and the physiological indexes of the leaves of the grafted plants (chlorophyll content, specific leaf area) were investigated, and the most suitable clones for Tangshan leaf were selected. Species, to provide help for ginkgo leaf industry in northern China. Analysis of variance of the test results of six code lines:

(1) The specific leaf area of six grafted plants ranged from large to small as follows: 13#、Yefeng、big flower spike、16#、27#、Buddha finger. Among them, the difference between 13 # and the big Buddha finger is very significant.

(2) The content of soluble sugar in leaves of six grafted plants ranged from high to low as follows: 16#、13#、big flower spike、27#、Yefeng 、Buddha finger. The difference between 16 # and Big Buddha Finger and Ye Feng is very significant.

(3) The content of soluble protein in leaves of six grafted plants ranged from high to low as follows: Buddha finger、big flower spike、Ye Feng、13#、27#、16#. Significant differences were found between Big Buddha Finger and Big Flower Spike and 13#,27#,16#.

(4) The chlorophyll content in leaves of six grafted plants ranged from high to low as follows: big flower spike、16#、Buddha finger、27#、13#、Yefeng. The difference between large spikes and leaf abundance is very significant.

(5) The content of flavonoids in leaves of six grafted plants ranged from high to low as follows: Yefeng、13#、16#、big flower spike、27#、Buddha finger. There was a significant difference between the big spike and 27 #, and there was a significant difference among the other four clones.

(6) According to the growth index, the number of leaves of six grafted plants was in the order of big Buddha finger, 27#,Yefeng, big spike, 16#,13# .

Key words: Ginkgo biloba L., randomized block design, Growth index, Clone photosynthetic, Flavonoids,

目 录

1文献综述 6

1.1 银杏概述及研究目的和意义 6

1.2 银杏选育研究概况 7

1.3 叶用银杏培育技术 9

2材料与方法 11

2.1 试验地及试验材料 11

2.1.1 试验地概况 11

2.1.2 试验材料 11

2.2 测定指标与方法 12

2.2.1 叶片比叶面积 12

2.2.2 叶片生理指标 12

2.2.3 次生代谢产物黄酮(HPLC)含量的测定方法

2.2.4 嫁接株生长指标………………………………………………………………. ..14

2.3 数据处理 ………………………………………………………………………………..

3 结果与分析 15

3.1 银杏叶片含水量及比叶面积 15

3.2 叶片内含物质含量 15

3.2.1可溶性糖含量 15

3.2.2可溶性蛋白质含量 16

3.2.3叶片叶绿素含量 16

3.3 各品系黄酮含量测定分析 17

3.4 嫁接株生长指标分析 17

3.5 各指标间相关性分析………………………………………………………………. ..17

4结论 18

致 谢 20

参考文献 21

1文献综述

1.1银杏概述及研究目的和意义
银杏(Ginkgo biloba L.)为银杏科、银杏属。其根系较深为落叶乔木,喜光怕涝但耐旱。银杏对大气污染具有一定的抵抗能力,对土壤的适应能力较强,最适宜生长在深厚肥沃且透水透气性能良好的砂质土壤上,对于温度的需求则是年平均温度在8℃-20℃之间满足银杏的生长[1]。银杏树具有中型的宽叶是裸子植物中独一无二的,其高可达四十米,胸径可至四米,其主干上部的侧枝底部会向下生长形成一种变态枝称为枝生垂乳,除此之外还有根生和干生垂乳,这些统称垂乳银杏,是银杏家族中的一特异种质[2]

树冠在幼年和壮年时呈圆锥形,老年时则呈卵形。枝条向上倾斜生长,分布近似轮生。叶子呈淡绿色且无毛,二分裂或全缘,为扇形叶,叶脉为“二歧状分叉叶脉”。叶片着生方式为互生,簇生在短枝上而散生在长枝上。球花单性为雌雄异株,着生于叶腋内,呈簇生状。银杏从种子到开花一般需要二十三年左右,而嫁接株一般三到五年就可开花,开花时间为四月,到十月成熟。其种子种皮被白粉包被,呈肉质;成熟时外种皮呈黄色或橙黄色。种子在枝条上呈下垂状,具长梗,一般为椭圆形。银杏的培育可以采用播种繁殖和无性繁殖[3]

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