美国白蛾对不同寄主植物嗜食性的研究毕业论文_林学毕业论文

美国白蛾对不同寄主植物嗜食性的研究毕业论文

2021-04-21更新

摘 要

美国白蛾Hyphantria cunea Drury,是一种在世界范围内分布的多食性鳞翅目(Lepidoptera)灯蛾科(Arctiidae)害虫,其幼虫多危害种林和果树。美国白蛾的生物学、生态学等方面的研究还比较薄弱,绝大多数工作集中在防治方面。另外,美国白蛾在我国的入侵传播机制、暴发机理,以及在疫区和其它物种的关系和不同生活史对策等问题,都有待于进一步探讨。

作为确定害虫经济危害水平的重要指标之一,与昆虫取食量密切联系的嗜食性在与美国白蛾相关的研究方面未得到重视。对于美国白蛾这种大范围多食性的害虫而言,研究其嗜食性对于生长发育的影响,有助于有效遏制美国白蛾在国内林业树种间的扩散趋势。

本研究自2016年5月至2017年5月,在实验室条件下饲养并观察以杨树、马褂木、梧桐、桑树4类南京地区常见树木和人工饲料分别作为食料的美国白蛾野外第一代幼虫,确定因食性差异而产生的美国白蛾发育时间、发育状况和产卵量、种群数量等具体生理特征表现型的差异。

本研究以桑树、杨树、梧桐、马褂木4类植物为代表的不同种类食料植物,对研究用美国白蛾分组种群的生物特性影响各不相同,这一区别在人工饲料方面同样有体现。研究结果对于南京地区制定美国白蛾相关防治对策,评估其对各类树种的危害差异,以应对未来可能突发的大面积受灾情况,确保农林业生产的有序进行具有重要意义。

关键词:美国白蛾;嗜食性;防治对策;生活史

The research about feeding habits on different host-plants of Hyphantria cunea Drury

ABSTRACT

Hyphantria cunea Drury is an ever-present species of the genus Lepidoptera (Arctiidae) pests whose larvae are more resistant to forest and fruit trees. The biology and ecology of the white moth are still relatively weak, and the vast majority of the work is focused on prevention and control. In addition, the problem of invasive propagation mechanism, outbreak mechanism, and the relationship between epidemic areas and other species and the existence of different life history in China is still to be further explored.

As one of the important indicators to determine the level of pest damage, the addiction closely linked to the feeding of insects has not been paid for a long time in research related to Hyphantria cunea Drury. For the large-scale multi-food pests of the Hyphantria cunea Drury, the study of the effect of its feeding on growth and development is helpful to effectively curb the spread of Hyphantria cunea Drury in the domestic forestry tree.

The main tasks of this study are, from May 20 to May 2017, under the laboratory conditions to keep and observe mulberry, poplar, parasol and Liriodendron 4 species of common trees in Nanjing and the control of artificial feed were used as the first generation larvae of the genus Hyphantria cepacia were selected to determine the differences in the developmental characteristics, developmental status, fecundity and population size of the Hyphantria cunea Drury, which were caused by differences in feeding habits.

The main findings of this study are the different types of food plants represented by mulberry, poplar, parasol and Liriodendron 4 species, which have different effects on the biological characteristics of the population of the study group. Feed the same also reflected. The discovery of this result, for the Nanjing area designated the Hyphantria cunea Drury related control measures to assess its differences in the various types of tree species in order to cope with the future may be a large area of sudden disaster situation, to ensure the orderly implementation of agricultural and forestry production is of great significance.

Key words:Hyphantria cunea Drury;feeding habits;prevention and cure;life history

目 录

1前言……………………………………………………………………………………………1

1.1文献综述……………………………………………………………………………………1

1.1.1美国白蛾的生态学与生物学特征…………………………………………………………1

1.1.2美国白蛾的危害与防治现状………………………………………………………………2

1.1.3美国白蛾当前防治存在的局限性…………………………………………………………4

1.2嗜食性和适口度研究的创新性设计……………………………………………………5

1.2.1美国白蛾嗜食性的研究目的……………………………………………………………5

1.2.2美国白蛾嗜食性研究的对生物防治的意义……………………………………………5

1.2.3美国白蛾嗜食性研究的技术路线………………………………………………………7

2材料与方法…………………………………………………………………………………………7

2.1实验条件及材料……………………………………………………………………………7

2.1.1实验地点……………………………………………………………………………………7

2.1.2实验用虫群及虫蛹来源……………………………………………………………………8

2.1.3实验用饲喂叶片及人工饲料来源…………………………………………………………8

2.1.4实验用器材…… ………………………………………………………………………… 8

2.2实验具体操作方法………………………………………………………………………9

2.2.1养虫环境的清洁保持…………………………………………………………………9

2.2.2饲养食料的采集与制备………………………………………………………………9

2.2.3 一至三龄幼虫饲养………………………………………………………………………9

2.2.4 四至六龄幼虫饲养……………………………………………………………………10

2.2.5 预化蛹的处理…………………………………………………………………………10

2.2.6 蛹期具体操作…………………………………………………………………………10

2.2.7 羽化交配处理…………………………………………………………………………10

2.2.8 美国白蛾卵消毒处理…………………………………………………………………10

2.2.9 美国白蛾成虫交配预处理……………………………………………………………11

2.2.10 数据处理…………………………………………………………………………………11

3结果与分析………………………………………………………………………………………11

3.1不同寄主植物对幼虫发育指标的影响……………………………………………………………11

3.2不同食料对美国白蛾蛹发育的影响……………………………………………………………12

3.3不同食料对美国白蛾成虫及卵的影响………………………………………………………14

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