观赏海棠自交及异交授粉后变化规律观察研究毕业论文_林学毕业论文

观赏海棠自交及异交授粉后变化规律观察研究毕业论文

2021-04-23更新

摘 要

花粉是种子植物的雄配子体,在有性繁殖中发挥着重要作用。本论文重点研究观赏海棠自交和异交授粉后的变化规律,研究其花粉生活力、杂交亲和力及结实率,为今后研究观赏海棠新品种育种提供依据。

以白兰地和高原红为试材,结合花粉管荧光显微技术、显微技术、人工控制授粉等方法,对花粉的萌发率、花粉在柱头上的萌发以及花粉管生长状况的荧光观察进行实验,研究了其自交和杂交授粉后花粉在花柱上萌发以及花粉管生长变化情况。

试验结果显示,自交和异交授粉后,自交的花粉在柱头上不萌发,呈现不亲和现象,田间试验座果率为0;而异交花粉能在柱头上萌发,生长速度为异交授粉后8h柱头有部分花粉粒开始萌发,授粉后12h大量花粉在柱头萌发,授粉后24h花粉管生长到花柱中下部,授粉后72h花粉管到达花柱基部,授粉后120h后花粉管到达胚囊,田间试验座果率达到67.16%,且果实表现性状优于开放授粉的果实,表现了较强的杂交亲和力,对研究杂交新品种有一定的意义。

关键词:海棠;花粉管;荧光显微镜技术;自交;异交

Studies on Variation Observation after Self Pollination and Out crossing Pollination of Ornamental Crabapple

ABSTRACT

Pollen is the male of seed plant, which plays an important role in sexual reproduction. This paper focuses on the changes of the self and cross pollination of ornamental flowering Chinese flowering crab, and studies the pollen viability, the affinity of cross pollination and seed setting rate.

Using brandy and high altitude red as the test material and combined with pollen tube fluorescent microscopy, microscopy, artificial control pollination methods, pollen germination rate, pollen on the stigma of germination and pollen tube growth of fluorescence was observed in the experiment of the self pollination and cross pollination in style on Pollen Germination and pollen tube growth changes.

The experimental results showed that after self and out cross pollination, self pollen could not germinate on the stigma, appear incompatible phenomenon, the field experiment fruit set was 0, whereas out crossing pollen can germinate on the stigma, growth rate of out crossing pollination after 8 h stigmas with pollen grains began to germinate, pollination after 12 h of vast quantities of pollen on the stigma germination, 24 h after pollination of pollen tube growth into the lower part of style, pollination after 72 h pollen tube arrival base of style, after pollination 120 h after pollen tube reached the embryo sac, field experiment the fruit set ratio reached 67.16% and fruit characteristics better than open pollinated fruit, the performance of the strong hybridization affinity, had certain significance for research of new varieties of hybrid.

Key words:Chinese flowering apple;pollen tube;fluorescence microscopy;self pollination;cross

目 录

1引言…………………………………………………………………………………………1

1.1海棠的地理生态学特性……………………………………………………………………1

1.1.1形态特征……………………………………………………………………………1

1.1.2地理分布……………………………………………………………………………1

1.1.3保护价值……………………………………………………………………………1

1.2海棠花粉生活力的测定……………………………………………………………………2

1.2.1花粉的定义…………………………………………………………………………2

1.2.2花粉采集与贮藏……………………………………………………………………2

1.2.3花粉生活力测定……………………………………………………………………2

1.3套袋实验……………………………………………………………………………………3

1.4花粉管生长状况的荧光观察………………………………………………………………3

1.5观赏海棠的研究概况………………………………………………………………………3

2试验地概况与试验方法……………………………………………………………………4

2.1试验地与研究材料概况…………………………………………………………………4

2.1.1试验地概况………………………………………………………………………4

2.1.2试验材料概况……………………………………………………………………4

2.2试验方法…………………………………………………………………………………4

2.2.1花粉萌发率测定…………………………………………………………………4

2.2.2自交与异交授粉…………………………………………………………………5

2.2.3花粉管生长状况的荧光观察……………………………………………………5

2.2.4座果率的观察……………………………………………………………………5

2.3数据处理…………………………………………………………………………………5

3结果与分析………………………………………………………………………………6

3.1花粉萌发率测定……………………………………………………………………………6

3.2花粉管生长状况的荧光观察………………………………………………………………7

3.2.1异交花粉管的行为………………………………………………………………7

3.2.2自交花粉管的行为………………………………………………………………9

3.3座果率的观察……………………………………………………………………………9

4结论与讨论………………………………………………………………………………12

致谢…………………………………………………………………………………………14

参考文献………………………………………………………………………………15

1 引言

1.1 海棠的地理生态学特性

1.1.1形态特征

落叶灌木或小乔木,高达7m,无枝刺;小枝圆柱形,紫红色,幼时被淡黄色绒毛;树皮片状脱落,落后痕迹显著。叶片椭圆形或椭圆状长圆形,长5~9cm,宽3~6cm,先端急尖,基部楔形或近圆形,边缘具刺芒状细锯齿,齿端具腺体,表面无毛,幼时沿叶脉被稀疏柔毛,背面幼时密被黄白色绒毛;叶柄粗壮,长1~1.5cm,被黄白色绒毛,上面两侧具棒状腺体;托叶膜质,椭圆状披针形,长7~15mm,先端渐尖,边缘具腺齿,沿叶脉被柔毛。花单生于短枝端,直径2.5~3cm;花梗粗短,长5~10mm,无毛;萼筒外面无毛;萼裂片三角状披针形,长约7mm,先端长渐尖,边缘具稀疏腺齿,外面无毛或被稀疏柔毛,内面密被浅褐色绒毛,较萼筒长,果时反折;花瓣倒卵形,淡红色;雄蕊长约5mm;花柱长约6mm,被柔毛。梨果长椭圆体形,长10~15cm,深黄色,具光泽,果肉木质,味微酸、涩,有芳香,具短果梗。花期4月,果期9~10月。

1.1.2地理分布

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