上海市闵行区林木昆虫资源调查及种类鉴定毕业论文_林学毕业论文

上海市闵行区林木昆虫资源调查及种类鉴定毕业论文

2021-04-23更新

摘 要

上海市闵行区位于上海的地域腹部,植物资源丰富,森林覆盖率达到15.6%。为了解和掌握闵行区林业有害生物发生、分布和危害的基本情况,修订和完善林业昆虫名录,补充和更新昆虫标本,本研究自2016年4月至5月,对闵行地区开展了林业昆虫资源普查,并对昆虫群落的组成特征及昆虫群落多样性进行了分析。

从三种样地中共采集昆虫标本513号,经分类鉴定133种,隶属9目67科。其中蜻蜓目4科5种;直翅目4科4种;半翅目12科28种;脉翅目1科1种;鞘翅目16科39种;双翅目4科4种;鳞翅目19科45种;膜翅目6科6种;螳螂目1科1种。

昆虫群落结构特征分析中发现,优势目为鳞翅目Lepidoptera和鞘翅目Coleoptera等。优势种为樟青凤蝶Graphium sarpedon Linnaeus、蓝扁角叶甲Platycorynus peregrinus (Herbst)、玉带凤蝶Papilio polytes Linnaeus、麻皮蝽Erthesina fullo (Thunberg)、黄钩蛱蝶Polygonia c-aureum (Linnaeus)、异色瓢虫Harmonia axyridis (Pallas)等。

多度分析表明每种昆虫都有最佳寄主,而昆虫的分布总是随着最佳寄主的存在而大量存在。多样性分析中发现植被类型丰富,远离城市和人群密集居住地的涵养林样地中,多样性指数较高,林带样地及经济林样地多样性指数较低的原因也是存在差异的。前者是由于人为活动的干扰引起的,后者则是由于植被类型的单一所致。

关键词:闵行区;昆虫群落结构;多度分析;多样性分析

Survey on insect resources and species identification in Minhang district of Shanghai

Abstract

Minhang district is located in the middle part of Shanghai. There are abundant plant resources in Minhang district and the forest coverage rate reached 15.6%. We conducted a field census on insect resources in Minhang district from April to May, 2016, and carried on the analysis of the composition of insect community features and the insect community diversity. Therefore we can not only learn the basic condition of the forest pest occurrence, distribution and damage in this area, but also reformulate list of forestry insect and collect insects specimens.

In the three kinds of sample area, 513 specimens were collected and identified, which belonged to 9 orders, 67 families and 133 species. Among them, 4 families and 5 species in Odonata, 4 families and 4 species in Orthoptera, 12 families and 28 species in Hemiptera,1 family and 1 species in Neuroptera,16 families and 39 species in Coleoptera,4 familes and 4 species in Diptera,19 families and 45 species in Lepidoptera,6 familes and 6 species in Hymenoptera,1 family and 1 species in Mantedea.

Analysis on the community structure characteristics showed that Lepidoptera and Coleoptera were dominant order, Graphium sarpedon Linnaeus,Platycorynus peregrinus (Herbst),Papilio polytes Linnaeus,Erthesina fullo (Thunberg),Polygonia c-aureum (Linnaeus),Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) were dominat species.

Analysis on the abundance manifested that every insect had its own preferred host plant and insect would like to habitate in the places where there are lots of host plants distribute. We found that sample area of high diversity index-conservation forest, had many identities, such as many types of host plants and being away from cities and residentals. The sample areas of forest belt and trees of economic value had low diversity index. The reasons were different. The former is caused by the interference of human activities. And the latter is due to single host plant types.

Key words: Minhang district,;Community structure of insect; Analysis on the abundance;  Diversity analysis

目 录

前言 1

1. 研究概况 2

1.1 研究区自然概况概况 2

1.2 昆虫资源调查研究概况 2

1.3 昆虫群落多样性的研究概况 2

1.4 林业有害生物的防治概况 4

2 样地选择与研究方法 4

2.1 样地选择 4

2.2 昆虫的采集、调查方法 5

2.2.1 调查工具 5

2.2.2 野外昆虫的采集方法 5

2.2.3 昆虫标本的制作与鉴定………………………………………………………..5

2.3 数据处理方法 5

3 结果与分析 6

3.1 林木昆虫群落结构特征 6

3.1.1 昆虫群落的种类组成 6

3.1.2 害虫及天敌亚群落种类组成 7

3.2多度分析 8

3.2.1三种样地各目中个体数量分析 8

3.2.2三种样地中各目中科的多度分析 9

3.2.3三种样地中各目种的多度分析 10

3.3多样性分析 12

4. 结论与讨论 13

4.1 主要结论 13

4.2 讨论 14

4.3不足与改进…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………14

致谢 15

参考文献 16

附录一: 17

前 言

昆虫是地球上种类最多的动物类群,几乎分布各种生境中。生物多样性是指各种生物与环境互相作用的生态过程及由此形成的生态系统,并包括这些生物物种所拥有的基因。昆虫多样性是生物多样性的重要组成部分[1]。研究昆虫多样性,不仅是研究昆虫群落特征的重要部分,还能使我们对昆虫世界有进一步的了解,更能让我们保护昆虫多样性及生物多样性,促进人与自然的和谐相处。

昆虫多样性受到诸多因素的影响,如作为寄主的植物本身的结构、多样性、生产力、群落密度,时间,季节,人类活动和城市化的加剧等。除了不可改变的因素之外,我们更应该重视和宣传的是人类本身可以控制的人为因素,如何合理的控制人类生活水平的不断提高与保护昆虫多样性之间的关系,应该是我们今后应该努力的方向。

由于全球气候变化,人类活动对森林生态系统的影响加剧,我国林业有害生物发生面积居高不下,随着国际贸易的日益频繁和旅游业的快速发展,外来林业有害生物的入侵,使我国的森林资源遭到严重破坏,甚至在局部地区形成难以逆转的生态灾难。

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