常熟市林木昆虫资源调查及种类鉴定毕业论文_林学毕业论文

常熟市林木昆虫资源调查及种类鉴定毕业论文

2021-04-23更新

摘 要

昆虫是世界上数量最庞大的动物类群,对生态系统起到了非常重要的作用,关于其调查及种类鉴定越来越为人们所重视,现已有广州,宁夏,云南,后河等地区进行了昆虫资源调查和种类鉴定,但对于常熟地区昆虫资源调查和种类鉴定还是一个新兴的课题。常熟处江南水乡之地,不仅是吴文化发祥地之一,还素有国际花园城市的美称。所以无论是从昆虫多样性考虑,还是整个苏州市林业保护角度来看,常熟市林业昆虫资源调查及种类鉴定都是一个十分有意义的课题。本文旨在通过对常熟地区昆虫多样性和虫害多样性的研究,为整个苏州及其他地区的虫害防治提供借鉴。

本文于2015年4月16日~2016年5月16号进行了为期13个月的昆虫多样性研究,对常熟市虞山林场、尚湖风景区、沙家浜风景区、虞东公路、董浜苗圃、宝岩、虞山中路、七星桥、沙家浜振兴园艺有限公司、338省道与常福公路、海阳公路和恒福公路交界处等具有代表性的林区、景区、苗圃地、经济林进行了昆虫种类的初步调查,所采集的标本经鉴定隶属12目93科263种。常熟市林业植物昆虫的主要类群为鞘翅目、鳞翅目、蜻蜓目、直翅目、等翅目、半翅目、脉翅目、膜翅目、蜚蠊目、衣鱼目、竹节虫目、螳螂目,各目中昆虫种类数占比分别为16.25%、44.87%、2.66%、 7.61%、 0.38%、20.91%、 0.38%、 4.94%、 0.38%、0.38%、0.38%、0.38% 。

关键词:调查;昆虫;多样性;常熟

Preliminary investigation on species of forest insects in Changshu

ABSTRACT

As the largest group of animals in the world, insects play a very important role in the ecosystem and nowadays people pay much more attentionto its species identification. Lots of work has been carried out about insect resources survey and appraisal in the areas such as Guangzhou, Ningxia, Yunnan, Houhe and so on. While for Changshu, insect resources survey and appraisal is a new aspect. Changshu is located in the south of the lower reaches of the Yangtze river,which is not only one of cradles of Wu Culture, but also an international garden city. Changshu forestry insect resources survey and species identification is a very meaningful issue whether in the field of insect, or in the protection of Suzhou forestry. This paper aims to serve as a reference for the Suzhou and other places insect diseases and control by researching the disease diversity of Changshu.

The investigation of plant diseases in Changshu was taken in June 2015. The results show that about 85 species of plant diseases while 50 species has been identified, which is closely related to the kinds of insects.

It took 13 months which is from 16 April 2015 to 16 May 2016, we carried out the insect diversity study which based on the plant disease research in the Yushan Forestry Centre,Shanghu Parkland, Shajiabang Parkland, YuDong highway, Dongbang nursery, Baoyan, Yushan middle road, seven-star bridge, Shajiabang Revitalization Gardening Limited Corporation, 338 provincial highway, representative forest region and economic forest such as the junction of Changfu highway, Haiyang road and Hengfu road. All of these insects belong to 12 orders, 93 families and 263 species. The dominant groups of forestry plant insects in Changshu are Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Odonata, Orthoptera, Isoptera, Hemiptera, Neuroptera, Hymenoptera, Blattaria, Zygentoma Phasmida and Mantedea , which possess 16.25%、44.87%、2.66%、 7.61%、 0.38%、20.91%、 0.38%、 4.94%、 0.38%、0.38%、0.38% and 0.38% respectively.

Key words:Investigation; Insects; Diversity;Changshu

目 录

1 前言……………………………………………………………………………………………………1

1.1 常熟的概况…………………………………………………………………………………1

1.2 研究目的和意义……………………………………………………………………………2

1.3 研究内容……………………………………………………………………………………2

2 研究方法…………………………………………………………………………………………………3

2.1 调查地点………………………………………………………………………3

2.2 工具及用品………………………………………………………………………3

2.3 昆虫的采集……………………………………………………………3

2.4 昆虫标本的制作………………………………………………………4

2.5 昆虫标本的保存……………………………………………………………5

2.6 昆虫标本的鉴定……………………………………………………………5

3 结果与分析………………………………………………………………………………………5

3.1 常熟市林业植物昆虫种类名录……………………………………………………5

3.2 常熟昆虫群落分析…………………………………………………………………17

4 结论与讨论……………………………………………………………………………………………19

致谢………………………………………………………………………………………………20

参考文献……………………………………………………………………………………………21

附录1……………………………………………………………………………………………23

附录2……………………………………………………………………………………………………26

1 前言

1.1 常熟的概况

江苏地处暖温带与亚热带交界区,处在落叶阔叶林与常绿阔叶林的过渡地带。常熟行政区划属江苏省苏州市,是中国国家生态城市之一,生态建设事业发展良好。境内山丘主要有虞山、顾山、福山等。其中以虞山为最,海拔261米,长6400米,东端蜿蜒入古城,素有“十里青山半入城”之说。常熟风景优美,沙家浜风景区坐落在常熟城南,曾经是著名的新四军抗日游击根据地之一,风景秀丽的尚湖风景区、虞山景区是当地著名5A旅游风景区[1],这三个地点也是本次调查涉及的重点区域。

常熟市地处东经120°33′-121°03′,北纬31°33′-31°50′。东邻太仓,距上海100公里;南接昆山、苏州市区;西接无锡市区、江阴;东北濒长江黄金水道,与南通隔江相望;西北境与张家港接壤。常熟地处中纬度地区,属亚热带季风气候,四季分明,气候温和,雨量充沛。一年中,冬季以寒冷少雨天气为主,夏季以炎热多雨天气为主,春秋两季为冬夏季风交替时期,常出现冷暖、干湿多变的天气。年平均气温15.4°C,年平均气温15.4°C,年均降水量1054毫米。根据我们普查人员每天的记录情况显示,常熟虫害问题在5月份下旬之后要重点防治,大部分苗圃或树种单一的道路旁的有害昆虫种类较少,然而在尚湖这样的风景区昆虫种类多样,有些昆虫杂食性高,栽植较近的树种容易也被啃食。

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