上海市公园绿地昆虫资源调查及种类鉴定毕业论文_林学毕业论文

上海市公园绿地昆虫资源调查及种类鉴定毕业论文

2021-04-23更新

摘 要

为保护昆虫资源的多样性,掌握翔实的上海市公园绿地有害生物发生、分布和危害的基本情况,编目公园绿地昆虫的种类,修订和补充已有的林业昆虫名录,于2016年4月19日至2016年5月6日,在上海市区多个公园绿地进行昆虫资源的系统调查。

在这些样地中,共采集昆虫标本380号,经鉴定为93种,隶属12目、58科。包括鳞翅目Lepidoptera23种;蜻蜓目Odonata2种;半翅目Hemiptera29种;鞘翅目Coleoptera24种;膜翅目Hymenoptera4种;双翅目Diptera3种;直翅目Orthoptera3种;革翅目Dermaptera1种;脉翅目Neuroptera1种;蜚蠊目Blattaria1种;等翅目Isoptera1种;缨翅目Thysanoptera1种。

从物种组成和群落多样性等方面进行分析。昆虫群落优势目为鳞翅目Lepidoptera、半翅目Hemiptera和鞘翅目Coleoptera;优势种包括玉带凤蝶Papilio polytes Linnaeus、菜粉蝶Pieris rapae Linne、丝棉木金星尺蛾Calospilos suspecta Warren等。

调查中发现害虫69种,隶属7目48科,主要包括黄杨绢野螟 Diaphania perspectalis Walker、麝凤蝶Byasa alcinous Klug、星天牛Anoplophora chinensis Forster等;天敌昆虫11种,隶属4目5科,主要包括黄蜻Pantala flavescens Fabricius、黄斑盘瓢虫Lemnia saucia Mulsant、黑带食蚜蝇 Episyrphus balteatus De Geer、中华草蛉Chrysoperla sinica Tjeder等。由于害虫种群优势明显,所以害虫和天敌昆虫未能达到自然平衡。

通过多度分析比较表明:昆虫因生活习性、生境、人为干扰等因素,各种样地中种类分差异较大。对多样性指数分析显示:植被种类越丰富,人为干扰越少,昆虫种类越多。游憩公园绿地植物资源相对较少,其多样性指数也相对较低,但是优势度指数较高;均匀度指数较一致,样地间无明显差异。生态公园绿地的昆虫群落最为稳定。

关键词:上海;公园绿地;昆虫群落结构;生物多样性

Investigation and species identification of insect resources in park green space in Shanghai City

Abstract

For conservation of insect biodiversity, making knowledge of the occurrence, distribution and damage of forest insect pests in park green space in Shanghai city as well as for the purpose of catalog insect species, revision and complement of the existing insect specimens, filed survey was carried out systematically in nine parks from 6th April to May 19 in 2016.

A total of 380 specimens were collected and 93 species were identified belonging to 12 orders and 58 families. Among them, 23 species belonged to Lepidoptera, 2 species belonged to Odonata, 29 species belonged to Hemiptera, 24 species belonged to Coleoptera, 4 species belonged to Hymenoptera, 3 species belonged to Dipter, 3 species belonged to Orthoptera, 1 species belonged to Dermaptera, 1 species belonged to Neuroptera, 1 species belonged to Blattodea, 1 species belonged to Isoptera, and 1 species belonged to Thysanoptera.

The species diversity and community composition were analyzed. The results showed that dominant orders were Lepidoptera, Hemiptera and Coleoptera; dominant species included Papilio polytes Linnaeus, Pieris rapae Linne, Calospilos suspecta Warren.

69 species were confirmed to pest insects, which belonging to 7 orders, 48 families. The common species including Diaphania Perspectalis walker, Byasa alcinous Klug, and Anoplophora chinensis Forster. 11 species were confirmed to natural enemies which belonging to 4 orders, 5 families. The common species were Pantala flavescens Fabricius, Lemnia saucia Mulsant, Episyrphus balteatus De Geer, Chrysoperla sinica Tjeder.

There were significant differences in the biodiversity and distribution of insect. It might be due to their various behaviors and human disturbance. The diversity index analysis showed that the less of human disturbance, the more of species abundance; the more of host plants the more of insects diversity. The plant resources in recreational park green space is relative less, so the diversity index( H’) is rather samll, while the dominance index(D) is higher. Even index (J) is consistent without significant difference between sample fields. The ecological park green space was more stable than other types.

Key words: Shanghai; park green space; insect community structure; biodiversity

目 录

前言 1

1. 研究概况 2

1.1 上海公园绿地研究概况 2

1.2 上海林业有害生物发生危害情况 2

1.3 上海林业有害生物防治情况 2

2 材料与方法 4

2.1 样地选择 4

2.2 调查工具 4

2.2.1 采集记录工具 4

2.2.2 标本制作工具 4

2.3 样地调查 4

2.4 标本制作与鉴定 3

2.5 数据处理方法 5

3 结果与分析 6

3.1 昆虫群落的种类组成特点 6

3.1.1 昆虫群落的种类组成 6

3.1.2 害虫及天敌亚群落种类组成 7

3.2多度分析 8

3.2.1各目中个体数量分析 8

3.2.2不同目中科的多度 9

3.2.3不同目中种的多度 10

3.3多样性分析 11

4. 结论与讨论 13

4.1 主要结论 13

4.2 不足与展望 14

致谢 15

参考文献 16

附录 17

前 言

林业在国民经济中占有重要地位,对保障国土生态安全,改善人民生活环境,减少环境污染,促进地方经济发展,维护生物多样性等方面具有重要意义。由于全球气候异常等多种因素,林业有害生物作为森林生态系统的组成部分,正呈现发生发展加重,蔓延危害加剧的趋势[1]

上海是一座国家历史名城,是中国最大的、经济不断发展的中心城市,也是国际著名的港口城市,在全国经济建设和社会发展中具有重要的地位和作用。随着十八大五中全会的召开,增加生态文明建设已经被写入国家的五年规划,上海市委、市政府也更加重视林业生态环境建设。

城市公园绿地作为城市基础设施,是城市市政公用事业和城市环境建设事业不可或缺的重要组成部分。它不仅能改善城市生态,美化城市环境,同时也为广大人民群众提供休憩、游览、开展科学文化活动的园地、增进人民身心健康等方面提供了重要场所。

昆虫,作为生物中最大的类群,与城市公园绿地有着密不可分的联系,因此,研究昆虫群落结构、分析昆虫多样性特点对维护公园绿地、制定防治害虫策略、保护天敌群落、维持城市公园绿地有着重要意义。

1. 研究概况

1.1 上海公园绿地研究概况

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