发酵元宝枫叶对育肥猪肌肉脂肪酸含量的影响毕业论文_林学毕业论文

发酵元宝枫叶对育肥猪肌肉脂肪酸含量的影响毕业论文

2021-04-20更新

摘 要

本文旨在研究发酵元宝枫叶对育肥猪肌肉脂肪酸含量的影响,并设未发酵元宝枫叶(UFA)组和基础饲粮对照(CON)组作为对照。选用48头胎次、初始体重[(55.20±1.40) kg]、日龄基本一致的“杜×长×大”育肥猪(公母各占1/2,全部去势),按单因素随机设计分成3个组,每组4个重复,每个重复4头猪。分别为对照(CON)组(饲喂基础饲粮)、未发酵元宝枫叶(UFA)组(在基础饲粮中用12%未发酵元宝枫叶替代等量的麸皮)和发酵元宝枫叶(FA)组(在基础饲粮中用12%发酵元宝枫叶粉末替代等量的麸皮)。预试期7 d,正试期63 d。试验验结果表明:与对照组相比,饲粮中添加发酵元宝枫叶显著增加了育肥猪肌肉中亚麻酸、花生烯酸、单不饱和脂肪酸(MUFA)、多不饱和脂肪酸(PUFA)的含量和多不饱和脂肪酸/饱和脂肪酸(PUFA/SFA)(Plt;0.05);发酵元宝枫叶组的亚麻酸和MUFA含量显著高于未发酵元宝枫叶组(Plt;0.05)。与对照组和未发酵元宝枫叶组相比,发酵元宝枫叶组肌肉中硬脂酸和花生酸含量显著降低(Plt;0.05)。发酵元宝枫叶组肌肉中饱和脂肪酸(SFA)含量显著低于对照组(Plt;0.05)。此外,育肥猪肌肉的剪切力显著降低(Plt;0.05),红度值显著增加(Plt;0.05),且发酵元宝枫叶组的系水力显著高于对照组和未发酵元宝枫叶组(Plt;0.05)。结果说明,饲粮中添加发酵元宝枫叶可以显著提高猪肉中UFA的含量,改变猪肉的脂肪酸结构,从而提高了猪肉的品质。

关键词:发酵元宝枫叶;脂肪酸;育肥猪;肉品质

Effects of Fermented Acer Truncatum Leaves on Fatty Acid Profile in Finishing Pigs

Abstract

Fermented Acer truncatum leaves (FA) and its comparative effect with unfermented Acer truncatum leaves (UFA) on the fatty acid profile of finishing pigs were investigated. Forty eight pigs with similar body weight were selected and randomly assigned to 3 groups with 4 replicates per group and 4 pigs per replicate. The control group was provided with basal diet, the UFA and FA groups were provided with the basal diets supplemented with 12% unfermented Acer truncatum leaves and fermented Acer truncatum leaves, respectively, instead of 12% wheat bran. There was a pretrial period of 7 d followed by an experimental period of 63 d. The results showed as follows: compared with the control group, dietary supplementation with FA significantly increased the contents of linolenic acid (C18:3), Arachidonic acid (C20:1), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and ratio of PUFA and saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA) (Plt;0.05). Increased contents of Linolenic acid(C18:3)and MUFA were observed in the FA group than that in UFA (Plt;0.05). Compared with the control and UFA groups, decreased contents of stearic acid (C18:0) and arachidic acid (C20:0) were observed in the FA group (Plt;0.05). There was significant decrease in SFA contents of FA group compared with the control group (Plt;0.05). In addition, decreased shear force, increased red values and water holding capacity was observed in the FA group than that of the control (Plt;0.05). It is concluded that 12% FA supplementation can increase the content of UFA in pork and improve the fatty acid profile, thus improving the meat quality.

Keywords: fermented Acer truncatum leaves; Fatty Acid; Finishing pigs; Meat quality

目 录

前 言 1

1文献综述 2

1.1元宝枫的概述 2

1.2元宝枫的有效成分研究 3

1.2.1元宝枫中的绿原酸 3

1.2.2元宝枫黄酮类化合物 4

1.3发酵技术在饲料行业的应用 4

1.3.1发酵饲料对肉猪养殖的影响 5

1.3.2发酵饲料对育肥猪的影响 6

1.4发酵元宝枫叶及其提取物对动物生产的影响 6

2 材料与方法 7

2.1 元宝枫叶发酵物的制备及其有效成分分析 7

2.2 试验设计与试验动物 8

2.3 试验饲粮与饲养管理 9

2.4 指标测定与方法 10

2.4.1 生产性能 10

2.4.2 肉品质 10

2.5 数据统计与分析 11

3 结果与分析 11

3.1 元宝枫叶发酵前后主要营养成分含量的变化 11

3.2 发酵元宝枫叶对育肥猪肉品质的影响 12

3.3发酵元宝枫叶对育肥猪肌肉脂肪酸含量的影响 13

讨 论 14

小 结 15

致 谢 15

参考文献 16

前 言

元宝枫又名五角枫,是中国特有树种,即是一种传统的绿化树种,又是一种纯天然、无公害、高营养的“药食两用”树种。元宝枫对环境适应性强,病虫害少,根系深,分蘖性强,耐修剪,树冠大,遮阴浓,树型优美,树叶颜色随季节变化,果形像古时元宝形状,深受人们喜爱,是常用的园林绿化树种。其在美化、净化环境的同时又具有较高的经济价值,其果实、木材单位经济价值较高。其树叶中富含黄酮、绿原酸、多糖等。元宝枫 1~5年生树叶总黄酮含量随树龄的增量从4月~6月份含量逐渐增加,到 6月份达到最高值,为4.83%,是国外提取绿原酸主要原料生咖啡豆(6.3%)含量的76%:为国内绿原酸含量较高植物5.81%含量的金银花花蕾的83%,但元宝枫树叶原料易得,成本低,元宝枫绿原酸综合利用经济价值高,产量大。是优秀的经济树种[1]

发酵饲料,是指在人工控制条件下利用微生物自身的代谢活动,将一些动物性、植物性和矿物质饲料原料中的抗营养因子分解或者转化成更容易被动物采食、消化和吸收的饲料原料。并且这些经过分解和转化的物质能被吸收的养分更高,同时没有毒害作用。利用微生物对饲料进行发酵,能把饲料中的复杂养分降解为较简单的养分,如把饲料的淀粉、蛋白质、粗纤维等营养物质提前分解,在动物进食之后很容易被消化吸收[2]

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