嫁接银杏叶用良种选育研究毕业论文_林学毕业论文

嫁接银杏叶用良种选育研究毕业论文

2021-04-20更新

摘 要

银杏树种是我国特有的经济树种,其叶、花、果以及自身木材均有较高的经济价值,而且其也具有极佳的观赏价值。本试验以邳州地区银杏三年生实生苗为砧木,接穗为生长优良的6个银杏品系,采用枝接嫁接方法。通过测定生长季不同银杏品系的光合指标、生理生化指标、黄酮含量等,选育适生且叶用价值较高的品系,为我国银杏叶用产业提供依据。试验结果表明:

(1)6个品系含水率从高到低排列为:16#>佛指类>13#>27#>大花穗>叶丰,大花穗和叶丰品系偏低,其他4个品系想差不大;

(2)6个品系的比叶面积从大到小依次为:叶丰>大花穗>27#>佛指类>13#>16#,其中叶丰、大花穗比叶面积相对其他银杏差异显著,叶片大且薄;

(3)各品系可溶性糖含量约在3.5%左右,含量从高到低排列:13#>27#>佛指类>叶丰>16#>大花穗,13#品系和其他5个品系差异极显著,生长状态最好;

(4)6个品系测得可溶性蛋白质含量约为1.6mg·g-1左右,含量高低为:27#>叶丰>佛指类>13#>大花穗>16#,27#和叶丰与其他品系之间差异极显著;

(5)6个品系的光合能力为27#和16#最好,其他品系则较弱;

  1. 6个品系的叶绿素含量从高到低排列:大花穗>27#>佛指类>13#>叶丰>16#,大花穗和27#与其他品系相比差别极显著;

(7)根据测定所得黄酮含量将6个品系分为两类:13#、16#、27#这一类别黄酮含量较低;叶丰、大花穗、佛指这一类别黄酮含量相对而言较高;

(8)根据相关性分析得知,黄酮含量与净光合速率负显著相关,而净光合速率与比叶面积呈极显著负相关;

关键词:银杏;随机区组设计;黄酮苷;生理指标;光合作用;

Studies on the Growth and Physiological Characteristics of Ginkgo biloba L.

ABSTRACT

Ginkgo is a unique economic tree species in China, its leaves, flowers, fruits and its own wood have higher economic value, and it also has a very good ornamental value. In this experiment, three year old seedlings of Ginkgo biloba in Pizhou area were used as rootstock and scions were selected as 6 Ginkgo biloba lines with good growth. By measuring the photosynthetic index, physiological and biochemical index and flavonoids content of different Ginkgo biloba varieties in growing season, the clones with suitable growth and high leaf value were selected to provide the basis for the industry of Ginkgo biloba leaves in China. The results show that:

(1) the water content of 6 lines ranged from high to low in the order of: 16# gt; phalanophora gt; 13# gt; 27# gt; big flower panicle gt; Ye Feng, the big flower ear and Ye Feng varieties were low, the other four lines were not bad;

(2) the specific leaf area of the six lines was as follows: Ye Feng gt; big flower ear gt; 27 # gt; Buddha finger gt; 13 # gt; 16 #.There were significant differences in leaf area between Ye Feng and big flower ears compared with other ginkgo biloba, and the leaves were large and thin.

(3) the soluble sugar content of each strain was about 3.5%, the content of which ranged from high to low: 13# gt; 27# gt; phalanophora gt; Yefeng gt; 16# gt; Dazhuaitou 13# and the other five lines, and the growth state was the best.

(4)The soluble protein content of 6 lines was about 1.6mg·g-1, and the content of soluble protein was as follows: 1. 27# gt; Yefeng gt; phalanoptera gt; 13# gt; big flower spike gt; 16#C27# and Yefeng had very significant difference with other lines.

(5)The photosynthetic capacity of 6 lines was the best, 27# and 16#, while the others were weaker.

(6)The chlorophyll content of 6 lines ranged from high to low: big flower spike gt; 27# gt; Buddha finger gt; 13# gt; Ye Feng gt; #16.The difference of big flower ear and 27# was extremely significant compared with other lines.

(7)According to the determination of flavonoids content, the six strains were divided into two groups, the flavonoids content was lower, the content of flavonoids in Ye Feng, big flower ear, Buddha finger was relatively high, and the content of flavonoids was relatively high in this kind of flavonoids.

(8)According to the determination of flavonoids content was negatively correlated with the net photosynthetic rate, while the net photosynthetic rate was negatively correlated with the specific leaf area.

Key words:Ginkgo biloba L., randomized block design, Flavonoids, physiological indicators, Photosynthesis

目 录

1文献综述 1

1.1 银杏概述 1

1.2银杏选育研究概况 1

1.3 叶用银杏培育技术 2

2材料与方法 4

2.1 试验地及试验材料 4

2.1.1 试验地概况 4

2.1.2 试验材料 4

2.2 测定指标与方法 4

2.2.1 叶片含水率及比叶面积 4

2.2.2 叶片光合作用指数 5

2.2.3 叶片生理生化指标 5

2.2.4 次生代谢产物黄酮(HPLC)含量的测定方法 6

3 结果与分析 7

3.1 银杏叶片含水量及比叶面积 7

3.2 叶片内含物质含量 8

3.2.1可溶性糖含量 8

3.2.2可溶性蛋白质含量 8

3.2.3叶片叶绿素含量 9

3.3 光合指标分析 10

3.4 各品系黄酮含量测定分析 12

3.5各指标间相关性分析 12

4结论与讨论 14

致 谢 15

参考文献 16

1文献综述

1.1 银杏概述

银杏(Ginkgo biloba)是银杏科落叶乔木,雌雄异株,银杏雌树的枝轮生,而雄银杏的枝是直立互生[1]。银杏的根系较深,对光照敏感,对干旱抗性强,并且对大气污染同样具有较强的抗性,对土壤的适应能力也强,最适宜生长的土壤是深厚肥沃通透性良好的砂质土壤,银杏的适生温度为8℃-20℃之间[2]。银杏可以采用播种繁殖和无性嫁接繁殖[3]。银杏的叶片在长枝上散生,但在短枝上却簇生,它的叶脉形式为“二歧状分叉叶脉”,不是常见类型。银杏的经济价值特别大,首先,银杏的叶片中含有黄酮成分,可以提取出来治疗疾病;其次,银杏的果可以食用,具有抑菌杀菌的作用;银杏的干通直,可以打造家具。

银杏类植物早在史前时期就已广泛分布于地球。但在第四冰川期结束之后,绝大部分的银杏品种遭到灭绝[4]。只有中国受冰川影响小的部分长江流域地区有银杏留存下来,一直到今天。至此,银杏成为了我国独一无二的树种,是世界上最古老的裸子植物。我国的银杏资源丰富,占据了全球半数以上的银杏总量。作为银杏之乡,我国的栽培技术先进,栽培历史悠久。宋代前后,银杏从我国传入日本。然后再由日本传入欧洲,再传入北美等。如今银杏植物在我国分布广泛,在山东日照、江苏泰州、邳州等地都有种植,由于中国地域自然条件差异大,导致种质资源非常丰富,所以银杏资源开发利用的研究还有待进一步深入和扩展[5]

本研究课题是对于邳州嫁接银杏叶用选育研究,通过对6个银杏品系进行随机无差别的嫁接实验,之后等到6个品系嫁接植株生长稳定后,测定嫁接植株叶片的可溶性糖含量、可溶性蛋白质、叶绿素含量、比叶面积及黄酮含量,并根据这些数据进行专业性分析,依据专业的评定标准进行选择,制定出优良的栽培技术措施,为邳州嫁接叶用银杏的发展提供了基础,加快了发展速度。

1.2 银杏选育研究概况

中国叶用银杏研究在近几年来飞速发展,但是与国际上相比,我国银杏叶中提取出来的药用有效成分比率低,质量与国外有很大的差别,经济效用价值不高,不能出口,在国际市场上议价能力低,这些都是由于我国银杏品种的问题。但由于中国是银杏之乡,能够大力发展叶用银杏的良种选育工作,开展嫁接叶用银杏的研究,通过这些工作有利于提高我国银杏叶提取物的质量和含量,提高叶片利用率,为银杏种植地创造收入。

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