4种引进栎类耐盐性差异比较毕业论文_林学毕业论文

4种引进栎类耐盐性差异比较毕业论文

2021-04-21更新

摘 要

本研究采用盆栽的方法,以弗吉尼亚栎、舒玛栎、柳叶栎、娜塔栎4种栎类的一年生盆栽实生苗为研究材料,用浇灌盐溶液的方法对其耐盐性进行研究,盐处理浓度分别为对照CK(0.0%)、轻度胁迫T1(0.3%)、重度胁迫T2(0.5%)(质量分数指NaCl占土壤干重的比例)3个浓度梯度,分别观察和测定了植株盐害症状、苗高、地径、丙二醛(MDA)、相对电导率、脯氨酸、可溶性糖等指标,并采用隶属函数法对供试树种的耐盐性进行综合评定。研究结果表明:(1)在不同盐浓度胁迫下,4个树种出现了不同程度的盐害症状,且随着盐分胁迫浓度的升高,其受害程度明显加重。在各胁迫强度下弗吉尼亚栎均生长良好,在0.5%的盐胁迫对弗吉尼亚栎的生长状况影响不大。短期胁迫对舒玛栎的生长影响不大,但中、长期胁迫对其生长极为不利。柳叶栎和娜塔栎能适应短期的轻度胁迫,但随胁迫程度的增加,其受害程度明显加重,在长期重度胁迫下死亡。(2)盐胁迫显著抑制了4种栎类的苗高相对生长,同时显著抑制了舒玛栎、柳叶栎和娜塔栎的地径相对生长,0.3%盐处理对弗吉尼亚栎的地径相对生长影响不显著。(3)盐胁迫下,4个树种的相对电导率和MDA含量总体均表现出上升趋势,且随着盐度的升高和胁迫时间的延长进一步加剧。不同浓度盐胁迫下,各树种细胞膜系统不同程度的受到伤害,其中弗吉尼亚栎细胞膜系统受害较轻,柳叶栎和娜塔栎受害较重,舒玛栎表现中等。(4)弗吉尼亚栎、舒玛栎和柳叶栎的脯氨酸含量在盐处理下总体都呈上升趋势,这是植物正常的生理反应,有利于其提高耐盐能力。随胁迫浓度的增大,脯氨酸含量变化幅度也随之变大。娜塔栎的脯氨酸含量对盐胁迫不敏感。随着盐处理浓度的升高和处理时间的延长,各树种间可溶性糖含量总体呈升高的变化趋势。(5)利用隶属函数法综合评定得出,弗吉尼亚栎的耐盐能力较强,舒玛栎中等,柳叶栎和娜塔栎相当,且耐盐能力较差。

关键词:栎类;盐胁迫;耐盐性;差异;耐盐性评价

Four types of salt tolerance were compared

ABSTRACT

This study adopts the method of pot to Virginia oak, suma oak, oak leaves, 4 kinds of oak natalya oak annual potted the west as the research material, use water salt solution method to study its salt resistance, salt processing concentration of contrast CK respectively (0.0%), mild stress T1 T2 (0.5%) (0.3%), severe stress (mass fraction NaCl accounted for the proportion of soil dry weight) 3 concentration gradient, salt injury symptoms were observed and measured the plants, seedling height, ground diameter, malondialdehyde (MDA) and relative conductivity, proline, soluble sugar and other indicators, and USES the method of subordinate function tree of salt resistance comprehensive evaluation. The results show that: (1) under the stress of different salt concentration, four tree species with different degrees of salt injury symptoms, and with the increase of concentration of salt stress, the victim was significantly worse. Virginia oak was growing well under duress, and the effect of salt stress on Virginia oak was not significant at 0.5%. The short-term stress has little effect on the growth of shumar oak, but the long-term stress is very bad for its growth. Willows oak and nalta oak can adapt to the short-term stress, but with increased duress, they are significantly more victimized and die under prolonged heavy duress. (2) The salt stress significantly inhibited the four oak seedling high relative growth, at the same time significantly inhibited the suma natalya oak of oak, oak leaves, and the ground diameter of relative growth, 0.3% salt treatment on Virginia oak ground diameter relative growth effect is not significant. Four tree species (3) under salt stress, the relative conductivity and MDA content showed a rising trend overall, and with the increase of salinity and stress time further. Under different concentrations of salt stress, the different degrees of damage tree cell membrane system, including cell membrane system suffer less Virginia oak, oak leaves and natalya oak suffer heavier, suma medium oak. (4) Virginia oak, suma oak and oak leaves proline content in the treatment of salt in general are on the rise, this is normal physiology reaction, plants could improve the salt tolerance ability. With the increase of the stress concentration, the amount of proline changes greatly. The proline content of natta oak is not sensitive to salt stress. As the concentration of salt was increased and the processing time was extended, the soluble sugar content in each tree was increasing in general. (5) Using the method of subordinate function synthetically evaluation, Virginia oak salt-tolerant ability is stronger, medium suma oak, oak and natalya oak leaves, and poor salt tolerance ability.

Keywords: Oak; Salt stress; Salt resistance. Differences; Salt resistance evaluation

目 录

引言 1

1 研究概况 2

1.1盐碱地绿化的研究进展 2

1.2 耐盐种质筛选和评价 3

1.2.1 林木耐盐性生长指标鉴定 3

1.2.2 林木耐盐性形态指标鉴定 4

1.2.3 树木耐盐碱性生理生化指标鉴定 5

1.2.4 耐盐植物筛选 6

1.2.5 抗盐碱种质资源的评价及选育 7

2 材料与方法 9

2.1 材料 9

2.2 试验设计 9

2.3 方法 9

2.3.1 生长指标的测定 9

2.3.2 电导率的测定 10

2.3.3 丙二醛(MDA)的测定 10

2.3.4 可溶性糖的测定 10

2.3.5 脯氨酸含量的测定 10

2.4 耐盐性综合评价 12

3 结果与分析 12

3.1 盐胁迫对各树种生长状况的影响 12

3.1.1 盐胁迫条件下各供试树种的盐害症状 12

3.1.2 盐胁迫对各供试树种苗高和地径的影响 13

3.2 盐胁迫对各供试树种膜系统的影响 13

3.2.1 盐胁迫对各供试树种细胞膜透性的影响 13

3.2.2 盐胁迫对各供试丙二醛含量(MDA)的影响 14

3.3 盐胁迫对各供试树种渗透调节物质的影响 15

3.3.1 盐胁迫对各树种脯氨酸含量的影响 15

3.3.2 盐胁迫对各树种可溶性糖含量的影响 16

3.5 耐盐性综合评价 17

4 讨论 19

5 结论 20

致谢 22

参考文献 23

引言

我国沿海各省、市、自治区有约1.8万km的滨海地带和岛屿沿岸,广泛分布着各种滨海盐土,总面积可达500万hm2,主要包括长江以北的山东、河北、辽宁等省及江苏北部的海滨冲积平原及长江以南的浙江、福建、广东等省沿海一带的部分地区(徐恒刚,2004)。重新开发和利用盐碱地资源,是进一步挖掘农业发展潜力的一条重要出路,而推广和选用耐盐植物是改良和利用大面积盐碱土壤最为经济、快捷的措施之一,因此,研究植物的耐盐性及其机理具有重要的理论和现实意义。对非盐生植物来说,盐胁迫下产生的一系列生长和生理生化适应性变化是植物耐盐性的重要标志,其中生物量的变化、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)活性和丙二醛(MDA)、可溶性蛋白、脯氨酸含量以及植物对Na 、K 的选择性吸收程度的高低等是影响植物耐盐能力的重要因素。常绿乔木佛吉尼亚栎是美国沿海硬阔林和灌丛林地的重要组成树种。2000年从美国引进后,在浙江慈溪、上虞以及上海等地进行了广泛试种及推广,在沿海地区表现出很强的适应能力,能够抗风、耐盐碱,因而成为该地区沿海防护林建设中的重要树种。近年来国内大力引种、发展柳叶栎、沼生红栎、纳塔栎、猩红栎、沼生栎、佛吉尼亚栎,但对于上述栎类的耐盐性大小及耐盐机理方面的研究几乎没有,因此有必要对盐胁迫下上述栎类的生长状况及生理生化变化进行深入研究,对于了解上述栎类引种后的适应性及其大面积栽培和开发利用,具有深远的科学意义和经济价值。

1 研究概况

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